Center a rack in the oven and preheat to 350 (F). Prepare two sheet pans by lining with parchment paper sheets and set aside.
In the bowl of a freestanding electric mixer fitted with a paddle attachment, combine 1 1/2 cups minus 1 tablespoon granulated sugar, 1 tablespoon dark brown sugar, and fresh zest from 1 medium-small Meyer lemon. Whisk to combine and use your fingers to rub the zest into the sugar until the sugar smells fragrant and zest is incorporated throughout the mixture in small clumps. Set aside.
In a medium bowl, combine 2 3/4 cups all-purpose flour, 2 teaspoons cream of tartar, 1 teaspoon baking soda, and 1 teaspoon kosher salt. Whisk to combine and set aside.
Return to your mixer bowl and add 1 cup unsalted butter to the sugars and lemon zest from the 2nd step. Beat on medium-high speed for about 2 to 3 minutes, until light and fluffy. Reduce the mixer speed to its slowest setting and add 6 large egg yolks, one at a time, only adding the next egg yolk when the previous one is fully incorporated. Add 1 teaspoon fresh lemon extract. Once incorporated, stop the mixer and use a rubber spatula to scrape down the sides of the bowl. Turn the mixer back on to its lowest setting and gradually add the dry ingredients, beating on low speed until just combined.
Use a 4-tablespoon cookie dough scoop to measure out cookie dough balls and place them on the lined sheet pans at least 3 inches apart. Right before baking, roll the tops and the sides of each cookie dough ball in the Tangy Lemon Sugar Topping, taking care not to cover the bottom of the cookies — doing so will cause them to stick to the parchment paper. Transfer to the preheated oven and bake for at least 12 minutes, or until the edges are set but the center is slightly puffed and still a little soft. Transfer to a wire rack to cool for 20 minutes on the tray, before using a metal spatula to turn each cookie out onto the rack to cool completely. Repeat with the remaining tray.